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谈在太极拳中如何注意贯串的重要意义——马海龙


太极拳是一种具有特殊活动的拳术。其中非常重要的一点,就是必须高度注重贯串的重要性。《太极拳论》中说:一举动,周身具要轻灵。尤须贯串。说明贯串在太极练习中的重要意义!贯串的重要意义,主要表现在以下几个方面:

Taichi is a highly sophisticated strain of Chinese boxing.A crucial point in Taichipractice is to observe the significance

of"unity/coherence"It was said in <The theory of Taichi>that "Once in motion, the body must stay lithe. Especially, parts must be unified." This goes to show the importance of the unity in Taichi practice. The following points contain further explaination:

1、动作:练太极必须连贯,中间不能有停顿和滞留的行为。这对初学者是十分重要的。必须养成贯串的好习惯。贯串是指动作在运动时,必须把它们联系得非常紧凑。中间不能停顿和滞留。即在一个动作(姿势)完成后,必须立即将第二个姿势进行下去。就是无使有缺陷处,无使有凹凸处,无使有断续处。如果有缺陷、凹凸和断续等弊病。就不能形成完整一气得机得势

产生这些弊病的后果,即产生斯其根自断,乃坏之速而无疑的产生,常表现在动作做得过大、过快或过慢之中。动作做得大,人的平衡就不能很好的掌握。而平衡是练太极拳最为重要的原则。譬如,在练太极拳时,动作做得过低,超过自己的能力。你就无法恢复到原来的位置,因为你必须依靠调整才能保持平衡,否则就无法复原。于是的弊病就产生出来了。同样,动作做得过快或过慢,也是同样会产生的弊病。·太极拳是一种非常注重均衡的拳术。无论力量、速度和动作,都要求做到相对一致。譬如,初学者盘一套架子,大致要求在20—25分钟。随着动作的熟练和功力的提高,就可以相应调整到30—40分钟。最多也不能超过45分钟。对于时间的原则必须是在均匀的速度下进行的。所以,在盘架子的时候必须将时间、速度调整到相对均匀的状态。也就是说,原则是不能停顿。

1.Moves: Taichi should be practiced in coherent movements without pause orstagnancy.It is very important for beginners to form a habit of unifying their movements.Unity means the moves are tightly linked in their action. No pause or stagnancy is allowed. When one move(or posture)is complete, the next must follow immediately, as in "one must move without vitium, without jounce, and without rupture". If faults, jounces or ruptures occur, Qi is wounded and the best timing is lost.

Consequently:"The roots being broken, quick destruction is sure to follow soon.""Breaks"usually result from movements that are too large, too quick or too slow.Bulky moves are bad for maintaining balance, and balance is a priority inTaichi Quan practice. For example, if you move too low it will be hard to get back into your original position, because you need constant"adjustments" to keep the balance or else you will not be able torestore your initial tension. That is how a"break" occurs. It is the same with moves that are too fast or too slow. The Taichi is centered on equilibiration, so force, speed and movementare expected to be uniformed. For beginners, a set of moves should be completed in around 20-25 minutes. As one's familiarity deepens and one's ability improves, one can adjust to make it last 30-40 minutes, but no more than 45.The principle is to keep going at an even speed, so time and pace should be fine-tuned to constant. Essentially, there must be no break.

2、力量:练太极拳要以轻灵为主。不能用浊力。浊力也会产生的弊病。因为浊力的发力和所用的力量和速度相关的。以搬澜拳为例。如果用浊力,打出的拳就不容易控制时间,力量和位置。如果你打出的拳不能控制,就会自己失去平衡,也不能及时复原。这样你就会处于失重的状态,而这时候自己必然处于失去防卫的状态。其次使自己失去了平衡,更容易受到攻击。

力量的应用原则是:似松非松,将展未展,也就是说,力量的应用必须是虚实兼有的。也就是必须达到沉着松净,专主一方,支撑八面。

2.Force: Taichi focuses on litheness. One cannot move with dull or stiff strength. Dull strength also leads to break because force expressed through dull strength is compromised in powerand speed. Take "Banlan Quan(Moving Waves)"as an example: if a punch is made with dull strength, the timing, power, and placement of the punch cannot be easily controlled. If you cannot control your own punch, you cannot keep your balance or recover it in time. Thus you lose your center of gravity and put yourself in a compromising situation regarding defences. Losing yourbalance, you are more easily placed under attacked.

The principle of excercising strength is to "relax without slackening and reach without stretching.''That is to say, the employment of strength should be both open and reserved at the same time. One has to keep Qi built, relaxed and steady, focusing in one direction, yet attentive in all.

3、行气:贯串的另一个重要方面,就是要与的运行有着重要的关联。《太极拳十三式行功心解》说:以心行气,务令沉着,乃能收敛入骨。以气运身,务令顺遂,乃能便利从心。练太极拳不能有迟重的感觉。行气要求顺遂,就是要求平稳地进行,也就是贯串的意义。所以说:意气须换得灵,乃有圆活之趣

行气是练太极拳的高级阶段。但是,行气的基础,是初级阶段锻炼的结果。所以,行气是物质的,而不是精神的。行气与发劲是因与果的关系。它们是相辅相成的、相互关联的。我们不能把行气看成是非常神秘的。问题在于你是否真正地下功夫。

所以,贯串对于初学者和有一定基础的,或是已具备相当功力者,都是应该十分注意的。也是必须严格遵守的原则。我看到许多太极拳爱好者,都不太注意贯串的重要性。其实,在练太极拳的四大原则中(轻灵、贯串、气宜鼓盈、神宜内敛)是相互关联,紧密联系的。

我希望爱好太极拳的每一个人,都要严格遵守这几个原则。而轻灵与贯串是外在的形式(相对内在而言)气宜鼓盈、神宜内敛则注与内在。两者是紧密相关的,应该在锻炼中不断地改进和提高自己。

3.Channeling Qi

Another crucial thing regarding unity is that it is related to the channelling of Qi.<Interpretation of 13 Taichi Forms> says:"Channel Qi from the heart.Take it steady to absorb it into bones. Use Qi to work the body. Take it smooth to ease the heart." Taichi can never feel heavy; to channel Qi smoothly means to keep it even, and thus, uniformed. Therefore, "Qi is sometimeslaid back and sometimes animated. Switching effortlessly is the point offlexibility."(It is translated in a stiff way. Please pay attention to your mentors when being taught. The words can't be simply understood by reading, not even in Chinese for Chinese people.)

ChannellingQi is a relatively more advanced stage of Taichi training, but its basis is what one gets from basic trainings. Qi works physically, not spiritually.Working Qi and dealing out strength are cause and effect. They are supplementary and complementary. We can't see Qi as something extremely mysterious. The real question is whether one puts hard work into practising.

Both beginners, and those with some or quite a bit of efficacy, should take care of unity and abide by its principles. I often see enthusiasts ignoring its importance. In fact, the Four Fundamentals of Taichi (Litheness, Unity, the echos of Qi and the introversion of your facial and inner expression)are very much interelated, and I hope they can be observed by everyone practising Taichi. Among the 4 fundamentals, ''The litheness and the coherence"are relatively more extroverted, and the latters are more focused on the inside. The external and the internal are linked, and need to be worked on through practice.


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